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3 février 2009 2 03 /02 /février /2009 00:00
Victoria of the United Kingdom, better known as Queen Victoria (1819 - 1901) was Queen of the  United Kingdom from 1837 to 1901. She was married to Albert, Prince Consort.

Victoria on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837 Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1842

The Victorian era represented the height of the Industrial Revolution, a period of significant social, economic, and technological progress in the United Kingdom. 

Manchester, England, pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys Watt steam engine, the steam engine fuelled primarily by coal that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world.

The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, production, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society ; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way.

In the later part of the 1700s there occurred a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual-labour-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water-wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine-tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. 

Sources : Wikipedia 
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